In recent years, people have begun to think more about their health, to monitor it. A healthy lifestyle is becoming more and more popular in different countries. However, a person can refuse junk food, alcohol, or smoking by himself, but we cannot stop breathing. Alas, what we inhale is often much more dangerous to health than an extra hamburger or a smoked cigarette. In this article, we will discuss PM 2.5, PM 2.5 Filters, HEPA filters, causes of PM 2.5, and how they affect health. In the air we breathe, what is in there? Air quality is determined by analyzing the presence of pollutants in it. One of the most significant indicators in this regard is the presence of PM 2.5 in the air.
PM 2.5 is the smallest particle, ranging in size from 0.001 to 2.5 micrometers (μm), found in the air. Such dimensions are much thinner than a human hair (40-120 microns), less than a red blood cell (7 microns). Also, there are larger particles that can be found in the air, with a size of 0-10 microns – they are called PM 10. PM is an abbreviated English Particulate Matter – solid particles. PM2.5 and PM10 have measured in weight – micrograms per cubic meter (µg / m³).
1 micron = 0.001 mm = 0.0001 cm = 0.000001 m. One micrometer is a millionth of a meter.
As its name suggests, this filter is PM 2.5 certified: It is a filter offering guaranteed filtration of 2.5 microns (better than the fabric masks and the famous threshold of 3 microns). In addition, the PM2.5 filters include five superimposed filtration layers, including one activated carbon filtration layer, hence its efficiency and high performance.
The PM 2.5 filters are compatible with any pollution mask fabric PM 2.5 adult size. Like any PM 2.5 filter, the life is 8 hours in total, twice as long as with a surgical mask. It is a filter with certified high filtration.
PM 2.5 filters mask made of soft, non-allergenic, melt-blown material. It creates an electrostatic barrier to capture the microscopic particles. The PM 2.5 filters mask has a compact design. You can freely adjust the size. It is easy to wear and comfortable.
Adjustable Nose Bridge: according to each person’s nose type to adjust, make the mask and nose snugger. It increases the mask sealing effect, avoids the breath caused by the fog of the glasses. The masks are washable, and PM 2.5 filters can replace. The PM 2.5 filters mask has a great filtering effect because they have five filter layers.
In the past, air purifiers with the PM 2.5 filters were used in buildings such as laboratories and healthcare facilities. However, as ongoing research shows, the health risks associated with air quality are highest in shared areas, where these new tools should therefore introduce.
PM 2.5 filters do not simply capture microscopic particles as if they were a fish stuck in a net. PM 2.5 filters create an electrostatic barrier to capture particles through three different methods: occlusion, interception, and diffusion.
The HEPA filter is considered to be one of the most effective. It can have different levels of filtration, the highest ones, levels 13 and 14 are also those used in hospitals and operating theaters. Thanks to the physical filter, they can retain up to 99.995% of pollutants up to a size of 0.3 microns. You have to pay attention to the quality, the level of filtering, and above all that it is a certified Hepa filter.
The H13 grade HEPA filter layer is very effective in removing 99.97% of fine dust and particles up to 0.3 μm in size and capturing microscopic allergens, viruses, bacteria, microbes, and pollen. From the various tests performed on the filter, the ability to prevent microbial contamination was also attested.
The origin of PM 2.5 particles, which are constantly in suspension in the air, is different – both natural and anthropogenic (ie generated by humans).
These are, among other things, microscopic particles of mineral salts, soot, rubber, sand and asphalt, heavy metal compounds, plant pollen, waste products of microorganisms (for example, dust mites), bacteria, tiny droplets of liquids (so-called aerosol pollution), gases.
Interestingly, soot, which is especially abundant in the air, is essentially a coal derivative and is adsorbent. Therefore, various toxic compounds are often deposited on soot particles. That is, we have not just soot in the air, but soot with harmful additives.
If we go a little deeper into PM 2.5, we can distinguish between primary and secondary particles. Particles primary in origin enter the air ready-made. But secondary ones are formed directly in the air due to various chemical reactions and compounds of different substances.
Fine particles PM 2.5 are always in the air. It does not matter where you are and breathe. But in different locations, the air is filled with particles of different origins and in different quantities. Naturally, the atmosphere of cities or near large industrial enterprises contains much more of such pollutants.
For safe human life, the average daily PM 2.5 level in the air, as per the recommendations of the World Health Organization (WHO), should not exceed 25 micrograms (μg) per cubic meter of air. In the USA and Russia, however, other norms have been established – 35 µg / m³. In the EU countries, an average annual rate of 25 µg / m³. WHO recommends an average annual rate of no more than 10 µg / m³.
WHO data: 91% of the world’s population lives in areas where pollution levels exceed the values established in the WHO air quality guidelines.
Due to its ultra-small size, all those particles of various origins that are constantly in the air, when inhaled, enter the lungs and are not further retained by natural biological barriers but pass into the bloodstream. Unfortunately, such impurities – fine particles – can accumulate in the body, which may well become a trigger for various unpleasant health-related consequences.
What are the consequences? The most different, it depends on the composition and volume of contaminants that enter the body. For example, various allergic reactions of the respiratory system.
These are heart attacks with strokes, oncology, problems with the development of the fetus in pregnant women, and even the possibility of miscarriage. The fact is that the cumulative effect often does not allow to associate troubles with health precisely, with the fact that a person, for example, breathed dirty air for 15 years. The body’s reaction to the accumulation of harmful substances in it is often not immediately noticeable.
However, the fact that dirty air negatively affects health and causes not only illness but also death. According to WHO, about 4 million deaths each year are due to the -ve effects of outdoor air pollution.
There is no absolute solution to the problem. A person cannot stay in a place with a sterile atmosphere all the time. Even if such a location can be organized every day we move around the city and the world, we live an ordinary life that does not provide complete isolation.
You can, of course, use respirators – protective masks that filter the air when inhaled. But this practice becomes somewhat widespread only in case of clear and visible threat – for example, smog in a city.
The only way to significantly improve the quality of the air you breathe is to use air purifiers. They are of different types – they purify the air directly in the room. They have the function of supplying and purifying the air from the street (the so-called supply ventilation).
Most household air purifiers provide mechanical air purification. They let air pass through filters (as a rule, there are several of them). Here are a few key points to consider when choosing an air purifier: